"For much of the state of Maine, the environment is the economy"
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29 Dec 2008
Once Canaport is fully operational — which should be within the first quarter of 2009 — the pipeline will begin to deliver natural gas to markets in Canada and the northeastern United States. (Dec 27)
Webmaster's Comments: At least one LNG industry analyst believes even Canaport may have difficulty succeeding due to the glut of domestic natural gas in North America. Either way, it demonstrates the lack of need for inappropriately-sited Calais LNG, along with the other two proposed local LNG sites.
Plunging markets caused Goldman Sachs to lose $3.71 billion in its fixed-income, currency, and commodities businesses, including non-investment-grade credit origination, and residential and commercial mortgage loans, and securities. Principal investments had a loss of $3.86 billion.
Meanwhile, revenue in Goldman's investment-banking business declined 48%, as the financial crisis and recession put the brakes on companies' plans to go public, sell debt or merge with others. (Dec 20)
Webmaster's Comments: Goldman Sachs, or a subsidiary, is a venture-capital investor in Calais LNG.
ST. ANDREWS – As he looks forward to 2009, St. Andrews Mayor John Craig said St. Andrews will do everything possible to ensure the Bayside quarry does not expand to the east side of Route 127 and the town will continue its fight against liquefied natural gas developers in Passamaquoddy Bay. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 26)
Still no port in the LNG storm
Oklahoma-based Quoddy Bay LNG is the most recent company to abandon plans for a liquefied natural gas terminal in Maine, withdrawing its application for state approval in October. But two other LNG proposals are still active — Calais LNG and Downeast LNG, though Downeast LNG, while it has a permit pending before FERC, withdrew its application with the state last year. Calais LNG first proposed its project in 2005.
The US Coast Guard aided a disabled tanker carrying liquefied natural gas early yesterday after it went adrift 16 miles northeast of Provincetown. It was the second time this year an LNG tanker broke down near the state's coastline.
The Coast Guard and the company considered yesterday's incident to be less severe than another one in February. In that case, the LNG tanker Catalunya Spirit went adrift for hours off Cape Cod because a computer glitch caused the vessel to lose power. After the vessel was tugged to shore, it took workers several days to restart the boilers.
Nevertheless, the incident, like the one in February, raised concerns among critics. State Senator Anthony Galluccio, a Cambridge Democrat, said that even though yesterday's event happened near Provincetown, it was scary to think that a tanker could go adrift someday while traveling through the densely populated Boston Harbor. He said it highlights the importance of having LNG facilities offshore. [Red emphasis added.]
SAKONNET AREA — Efforts to ship liquefied natural gas up the bay to [Weaver's Cove LNG in] Fall River were dealt a setback [the week of December 7] when Massachusetts ruled that changes to the plan require that a new environmental impact report be prepared. That could add many months to the process. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 11)
Platts LNG Daily reports that the New England Power Generators Association filed a letter Wednesday with the North American Electricity Reliability Corporation expressing concerns that the composition of new gas supplies, including imported LNG and shale gas, creates technical challenges for the region’s electricity generators. (Dec 18)
[On December 17] FERC authorized Dominion Cove Point LNG, L.P. to commence service of its Cove Point Expansion. (Dec 18)
A plan to build an artificial island 13 miles south of the Long Beach shoreline as a terminal for liquefied natural gas has some residents and environmental advocates fuming.
[Daniel Bobis, a lifelong Long Beach resident,] said the project has drawn a step closer to becoming a reality since ASIG reportedly raised additional private financing for the proposal in late October. He noted that the site of the proposed island is the only naturally occurring reef in the region, and serves as a sanctuary for marine life. (Dec 18)
Southern Liquified Natural Gas, a division of Houston-based El Paso Corp., got the OK late last year to further expand its Elba Island LNG receiving terminal. When complete, the project will add 8.4 billion cubic feet of storage capacity and 900 million cubic feet per day of send-out capacity, doubling the storage and send-out capabilities of the facility.
The expansion is taking place in two phases. The initial phase will include installation of a new 4.2 billion cubic foot storage tank and modification of the docking facilities to accommodate new, larger delivery vessels. This phase of the expansion is expected to go into service in mid-2010, as is the Elba Express. (Dec 19)
TORP officials have said in the past that an alternative "closed-loop" system would be cost prohibitive. But TORP, which is part of a Norwegian company, now has a new partner, Seimens AG of Germany. And the partnership proposes new closed-loop system using air vaporizers to reheat the LNG, not sea water or the burning of natural gas. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 16)
ISELIN, N.J.: Houston-based TORP Terminal LP plans to reinstate its application for the Bienville liquefied natural gas (LNG) towards the end of first quarter 2009 with the project utilizing closed loop technology. (Dec 12)
On December 9, 2008, Freeport LNG Development, L.P., filed an application requesting that FERC amend its authorization to construct and operate the Freeport LNG terminal to allow the terminal to bring in domestic LNG supplies via truck in order to maintain a proper cryogenic state for the facility's LNG storage tanks. (Dec 17)
Webmaster's Comments: The glut of domestic natural gas apparently makes available LNG produced by domestic peakshaving plants — and is making it available for export!
NATS [subscription required] speculates that recent developments in the Atlantic Basin LNG market may be part of a larger effort to make the transatlantic arbitrage market more liquid. These include ConocoPhillips' delivery of the first cargo to Belgium's Zeebrugge regasification terminal, which was sourced from Trinidad & Tobago, as well as Freeport LNG's applications to add re-export and liquefaction capabilities to its import terminal in order to use foreign and domestic natural gas to maintain proper cryogenic conditions in their LNG storage tanks. (Dec 18)
"Given that the actual construction of Bradwood is not, and should not be, considered a certainty, it is inappropriate to move forward on amending forest plans to allow construction of an entirely separate pipeline that would connect to it," Wyden said. (Dec 22)
Earlier this month, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) filed comments on FERC's Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Jordan Cove LNG terminal and Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline. Specifically, EPA criticizes details of a proposed overland route for the pipeline (an alternative to the current route that crosses Coos Bay), and raises concerns over plans for maintenance dredging of waterways leading to the facility. (Dec 18)
"The board's statement that there is no need for LNG is very encouraging and indicates that the board recognizes that we do not need more foreign fossil fuels," said Brett VandenHeuvel, executive director of Columbia Riverkeeper. "Oregon cannot issue a lease of state land unless importing LNG is necessary. The board determined that there is no proven need for LNG. Connecting the dots really casts a shadow over the LNG terminals in Oregon." [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 16)
With LNG proposals in Oregon mired in uncertainty and financial markets clapped shut, the backers' schedule may be optimistic. The project also faces stiff opposition from environmental and property rights groups, and objections from federal wildlife officials who feel the environmental analysis of Palomar should be directly linked to that of the LNG terminal it would serve, as the projects are interdependent.
State officials have lambasted FERC, saying it has rubber stamped the LNG projects. Specifically, they believe the agency has failed to demonstrate any need for additional natural gas in the state and has issued inadequate and faulty environmental analyses of the projects. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 11)
WASHINGTON, DC, Dec. 29 -- Pipelines from a proposed deepwater LNG terminal off Southern California face a 16-48% probability of a damaging earthquake within 30 miles of their route, the US Geological Survey reported Dec. 23.
The USGS reported that the proposed project's pipelines would face hazards from potential sea floor offsets because they cross at least two faults, as well as tsunamis, erosion or scouring, shallow gas deposit venting, and pipeline settling.
San Francisco, CA – New energy projections from Federal and California agencies show the LNG speculative bubble is over, according to a West Coast-wide coalition of organizations opposing dependence on foreign Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, natural gas imports will decline rapidly from 16 percent today to only 3 percent in 2030. The difference will be made up in increased domestic natural gas production. According to a staff presentation from the California Public Utilities and Energy Commissions, California’s natural gas demand will remain flat until 2030, while the one LNG import terminal serving California, located in Mexico, will not receive “significant deliveries.” [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 22)
The Liquefied Natural Gas Investment Trap
Until I see better evidence that LNG will play a more substantial part in natural gas markets, I'm staying out of this trap. I keep seeing project after project being either delayed or abandoned altogether. I need to see much more investment in the infrastructure before I think about putting LNG into my portfolio. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 1)
17 Dec 2008
The Fairplay Shipping News reports that the U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal sector, once touted for its vast potentials, appears to have disastrously overbuilt capacity. The situation is so bleak that two newcomers are pleading for the U.S. government to allow imports of LNG that will then be re-exported to maintain continual operation status of now empty terminals.
Webmaster's Comments: The number of people appearing at the FERC Scoping Session aren't representative of the number of people in the Passamaquoddy Bay community who oppose Calais LNG. But that's beside the point; popularity and jobs don't trump inappropriate terminal siting, and there's nothing that can be done to make Passamaquoddy Bay comply with the world LNG industry's best practices. Calais LNG is interested only in profit, regardless of industry standards or the economic, health, and safety effects on local populations.
The LNG industry, itself, in the publication "Site Selection and Design for LNG Ports and Jetties" warns against the more than a score of conditions in Passamaquoddy Bay that are contrary to the health of the LNG industry. Violating the industry's best practices — according to SIGTTO, representing over 95% of the world LNG industry — invites shutdown of the entire industry.
“Taking the route all together with the attendant physical, tidal, current, and fog limitations, this proposal poses risks that are of such proportions and degrees as to make the safe transport of LNG in tankers highly questionable.” (Dec 9)
Webmaster's Comments: Calais LNG and the local US ship pilots argue that computer simulations show LNG tankers can be safely transited through Head Harbour Passage and to the proposed Calais LNG terminal. I can safely drive over an icy road, too, if very careful, but that doesn't mean it should be done regularly and repeatedly, especially when lives, property, and livelihood of llocal civilian populations — including populations, the majority of whom oppose Calais LNG — are at stake. And, it shouldn't be done when there are far safer alternatives, such as offshore terminal siting that poses no risks to civilian populations — like the two new terminals off Gloucester, Massachusetts, and the older terminal over 100 miles offshore from Louisiana.
Then there's the issue of necessity. There's a 100-year glut of natural gas in the US, plus there are three new LNG import terminals in the Northeast, in addition to the new and productive Deep Panuke natural gas well off Nova Scotia, all obviating the need for any additional LNG facilities in Passamaquoddy Bay. A glut of gas and an existing overbuild of LNG import facilities moot Calais LNG and its local predecessors. They're a project with no future.
Ship strikes are a leading cause of injury and death to whales. To increase ship traffic in these waters is simply unethical. But so, too, is the long-term lack of jobs in northeastern Maine. There’s no way around it. If we’re going to continue living here, connected to the global economy, we’re going to have to be far more creative at developing new businesses and job opportunities.
LNG is knocking at our door because the people of this region have lacked the creative skills to adapt to the changing global economy. Lacking this, even the LNG terminals won’t save us from extinction. We’re still as vulnerable as the whales.
Don’t believe it? Just look at the riverbanks and all the broken piers to see all the industry that has left the region over the past 100 years. LNG won’t save us. But a more creative world view can. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 9)
Late yesterday, a federal grand jury returned an Indictment charging a Medford man with shining a powerful green laser beam into a Massachusetts State Police helicopter escorting an LNG tanker through Boston Harbor, forcing it to abandon its escort mission, and with making false statements about his involvement to police investigators.
[O]n December 7, 2007, SASSO repeatedly pointed a powerful green laser beam, with a range of up to three miles, at a State Police helicopter that was escorting a liquid natural gas tanker through Boston Harbor.
The Affidavit alleges that the helicopter pilots were forced to take evasive action to avoid looking into the light and had to abandon their escort mission in order to track down the laser beam’s source, both for their own safety and the safety of planes landing at nearby Logan Airport. [Red emphasis added.]
Webmaster's Comments: Apparently, LNG tanker escort security of any type within range of a hand-held industrial laser could be comprimised fairly easily, demonstrating just one more reason why LNG facilities and transit routes should not be located where released LNG could affect civilian populations (See LNG Terminal Siting Standards Organization and SIGTTO.)
A federal court ruled that the Maritime Administration acted properly in allowing New Jersey to be part of the review of the proposed Atlantic Sea Island Group offshore terminal for discharging, storing, and processing liquefied natural gas.
NEW YORK, Dec 17 (Reuters) - The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission said on Wednesday it granted Dominion Resources' Cove Point LNG conditional approval to commence service at its expansion of its existing LNG terminal in Maryland.
“The lack of final investment decisions on new supply projects since most of these new projects were conceptualised is probably setting the industry up for a very tough supply crunch in the middle of the next decade,” Elizabeth Spomer of BG Group is quoted as having said.
Most speakers at the annual conference apparently agreed there would most likely be a lull in demand for the fuel, used to fire an increasing number of the world’s power stations and as a raw material for some industries because of the economic downturn. [Red emphasis added.]
The loose grouping of gas producers, known as the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, will meet in Moscow on Dec. 23 to sign a new charter to formalize the organization, officials at the Russian Energy Ministry said.
Critics say liquefied natural gas is difficult to secure, expensive to produce and not much cleaner than coal-generated power
"If you go back a couple of years, people were saying LNG is going to get 10 per cent of the market. That seems unlikely in the foreseeable future."They found that natural gas, while it has nearly half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal when burned, is far less climate-friendly in LNG form. Liquefying, transporting and regasifying natural gas uses tremendous amounts of energy and some of the gas is lost as "fugitive emissions" along the way.
A study published by Carnegie Mellon University compared the greenhousegas emissions from the full life-cycle of coal, natural gas, liquified natural gas, and synthetic natural gas produced from coal. The chart below summarizes the study conclusions. In particular, the full life cycle of LNG, which includes liquefaction, transportation, and regasification, compares with the full life cycle of domestically sourced coal. [Red emphasis added.]
The large LNG ship technologies, developed in conjunction with joint venture partner Qatar Petroleum, include a number of industry breakthroughs and significant enhancements, including increased ship size, onboard reliquefaction units, slow-speed diesel engines, twin propellers and rudders, largest ship-board LNG tanks ever built, the latest in hull antifouling protection and improved fire-protection systems. The end result of these new generation ships is a 20-30 percent reduction in transportation cost.
10 Dec 2008
ASIG filed the suit seeking a preliminary injunction staying a November 2007 decision by the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) that would grant New Jersey "adjacent coastal state" designation as part of the federal review process for the proposed Safe Harbor Energy LNG deepwater terminal. (Dec 9)
"While construction of the Alaskan pipeline will likely have a positive impact on Canada's economy in the shorter term, once it is up and running it will make Alaska into a direct and effective competitor for Alberta and BC's natural gas industry," said Ralph Glass, VP Operations of AJM Petroleum Consultants. "Looking ahead, we have to consider the fact that the Alaskan pipeline will increase natural gas volumes into the US market. This could keep natural gas prices low in future years - low natural gas prices will have a significant impact on future drilling here in Canada."
"In light of the changes that will be inevitable with the completion of the Alaskan pipeline, this is the ideal time to begin aggressively pursuing an LNG and oil export terminal on BC's coast so Western Canadian hydrocarbons can gain access to world markets." [Red & bold emphasis added.]
Webmaster's comments: This is further evidence of the US and Canadian domestic natural gas glut.
The developer of the Kitimat LNG facility has issued a request for expressions of interest in the project's equity, and terminal use or offtake contracts. Privately-held Galveston LNG has changed Kitimat from an import to export ... (Dec 9)
Is the fix still in?
The Clatsop County Commission refuses to learn those lessons. The most recent example is the commission's failure to respond to a two-month-old inquiry from the state Department of Justice. The state asked a very simple question: Whether the Bradwood Landing Land Use Compatibility Statement is still valid since county voters passed the anti-LNG referendum in September. The county's counsel, Andy Jordan, drafted a response, but the commission hasn't approved its transmission to the state. (Dec 8)
If Foster sets an equally aggressive tone in office, Kroger is sure to win plaudits from environmentalists. But you can bet there will be pushback from the business community claiming that the state is driving out businesses in challenging economic times instead of working with them. Foster's first task appears to be aimed at fighting federal approval of a liquefied natural gas terminal at Bradwood Landing on the Columbia River. (Dec 9)
Liquefied natural gas opponents got a boost Monday when Oregon's Attorney General-elect John Kroger announced his appointment of Columbia Riverkeeper Executive Director Brent Foster to his executive team at the Oregon Department of Justice.
"I don't think it should surprise anyone to know the (Oregon Department of Justice) is prepared to move forward and if necessary bring legal challenges to enforce the law," said Foster. "FERC is not above the law." [Red emphasis added.]
Kroger appoints Riverkeeper director as special counsel for environmental issues
Brent Foster, executive director of Columbia Riverkeeper, has been one of the public faces of the fight against liquefied gas terminals proposed for the Oregon Coast, and compressed gas pipelines that would deliver that fuel inland.
"He's been a professional and worthy adversary, and we wish him well," Hansen said. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 9)
They're not quiet types. They include two activists as special counsels: an environmental attorney who has been one of the strongest opponents of liquefied natural gas terminals in the state, and an elections-law attorney with public employee unions among her top clients. (Dec 8)
NorthernStar is the developer of the proposed Bradwood Landing LNG terminal, on the Columbia River east of Astoria. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has approved that project but may revisit its approval next year.
It is unfortunate that the Oregon AFL-CIO's president, Tom Chamberlain, confuses short-term, temporary jobs with the very real opportunities that Oregon is presented with as solar power, wind energy and energy efficiency start to replace costly fossil fuels to make the state's economy strong.
Chamberlain picks up Northwest Natural's claim that Bradwood Landing would save its customers more than $400 million over 20 years versus other supply options. That figure ignores the fact that LNG is priced according to world demand, which is three times the price of U.S. natural gas. (Dec 8)
Webmaster's comments: The world price of LNG, depending on the day and circumstances, ranges somewhere between twice and triple the cost of domestic natural gas.
BARCELONA, Dec 10 (Reuters) - Spain's Iberdrola is looking at securing capacity to import liquefied natural gas into the United States as part of its international expansion plans, Jose Simon, director of gas supply at the company said on Wednesday.
Webmaster's comments: Iberdrola obviously hasn't studied the US domestic natural gas glut.
BARCELONA, Dec 10 (Reuters) - A 50-percent surge in global liquefied natural gas production capacity over the next three years, at a time of shaky demand, may make for a buyers market in LNG for a few years but the supply crunch will return later, an executive from BG Group plc said on Wednesday.
BG, one of the world's leading LNG companies, estimates that about 14 million tonnes of the super-chilled gas will be sent from the Atlantic basin to Asia in 2008, double the amount sent to Asian buyers in 2007. [Red & bold emphasis added.]
Unlike oil, natural gas production is not dominated by the places with the largest natural gas reserves. Iran and Qatar have the second- and third-largest reserves after Russia, but both provide only a small fraction of the world's total production--neither country ranks in the top ten global producers. Nearly half of all production takes place in Russia, the United States, and Canada--with U.S. and Russian production dominating.
Jerry Birnbaum, president of the consulting firm Energy Research Associates, says no one really knows the true costs for LNG projects right now. "LNG may be very expensive to produce right now," says EIA analyst Damien Gaul. [Red emphasis added.] (Dec 8)
7 Dec 2008
Webmaster's comments: FERC abets intimidation by hecklers and disruptive behavior, by not enforcing decorum, thus reducing the likelihood that all concerns will be heard — contrary to the purpose of FERC's Scoping Sessions and the public interest.
Among those who expressed opposition to the facility, Joan Livingstone of Calais questioned the reliability of the project’s financial backing. Calais LNG has said it has backing from the financial firm Goldman Sachs, which has been hit hard in the international economic crisis.
Webmaster's comments: Why did the Bangor Daily News omit reporting the inappropriate behavior of some attendees at this event?
ASBURY PARK, N.J.: Over 30 organizations from throughout the region released a letter this week denouncing New Jersey Gov. Jon Corzine's support for liquefied natural gas (LNG) ports which is included in his recently released Energy Master Plan for the state. Three offshore facilities to import LNG are proposed off the New Jersey/New York coast. (Dec 5)
State and local elected officials are virtually united in their opposition to the terminal, saying it would be a target for terrorists and put nearby residents at risk. The terminal would be less than two miles from residential neighborhoods.
Webmaster's comments: FERC is once again flouting LNG industry standards, subjecting civilians to government-defined LNG Hazard Zones.
Baltimore County Executive Jim Smith said he is considering contacting President-elect Barack Obama and his Secretary of Commerce nominee, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, to ask that they review the Sparrows Point and other proposed LNG facilities.
Beginning December 9, 2008, all vessels 65 feet (19.8 m) or greater in overall length subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or entering or departing a port or place under the jurisdiction of the United States will be subject to a 10 knot (over ground) speed restriction at certain times of the year in certain locations along the eastern seaboard of the United States. The regulation, issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is designed to protect North Atlantic right whales. (Dec 4)
A committee appointed to study proposals for two liquefied natural gas pipelines will advise Yamhill County's commissioners to oppose them.
Webmaster's comments: The headline and story refer to "LNG pipelines"; however, that's misleading. They're actually LNG-source natural gas pipelines.
Major state figures, including the state's Democratic governor, Ted Kulongoski and Democratic U.S. Sen. Ron Wyden oppose the project. So does Washington Gov. Christine Gregoire, noting that the pipeline needed to move natural gas inland from Bradwood would traverse terrain in and around Vancouver, Wash.
None of that matters much either to the current Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, whose five members all are appointees of President Bush, or to NorthernStar. Exactly one day after Clatsop County voted down Bradwood via a local ballot proposition, FERC gave tentative approval to the LNG plant, most of whose product would end up in California.
Their protests came as county leaders responded to an inquiry from the Oregon Department of Justice about where the Bradwood Landing LNG project issue stands after the overwhelming vote against running pipelines through park lands back in September. The inquiry follows approval of the Bradwood project by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which has since agreed to take more time to review state objections to the project.
The news that the county had delayed its response to the state further inflamed LNG opponents. Also unanswered is the question of how NorthernStar, the LNG company, will pipe gas from Bradwood Landing to Kelso, Wash., if it cannot put pipes under park lands. (Dec 4)
Webmaster's comments: Regardless of the people's frustration at their county officials, the uncivil behavior demonstrated was inappropriate and counter-productive to their purpose.
Gov. Ted Kulongoski and his natural resources agencies are going back to the mat with federal energy regulators over the permit process for another proposed liquefied natural gas terminal, this one in Coos Bay.
Rep. Timothy Bishop (D-NY) introduced a bill (HR 6720) this year to establish a commission to consider changing the approval and siting process for gas pipelines, potentially taking the authority away from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and putting it in state and regional hands, as is currently done with electric transmission lines.
The original target of the House bill was liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, but in their "zeal" to block LNG, Bishop and the bill's cosponsors are attempting to alter the siting and approval process for gas pipelines and storage, according to Edwards. (Dec 5)
The Obama-Biden Energy Plan calls for the creation of a process for early identification of infrastructure obstacles or possible federal permitting process delays to drilling in Bakken Shale in Montana and North Dakota, unconventional natural gas supplies in the Barnett Shale formation in Texas and the Fayetteville Shale in Arkansas, and the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. (Dec 1)
Webmaster's comments: Even President-elect Obama advocates exploiting the vast supply of domestic natural gas, mooting the need for importing LNG in Passamaquoddy Bay.
When I was young, my imagination was captured by the wonderful TARDIS machine of TV’s Dr. Who. (For the uninitiated, TARDIS — for Time and Relative Dimensions in Space — was, on the outside, a police phone booth in which two or three people could fit. But the interior was that of a cathedral size spaceship). So small on the outside, so huge on the inside.
SINGAPORE (Bloomberg) -- Liquefied natural gas production may increase at the slowest pace in 28 years because of equipment breakdowns, reduced gas supplies and delays in new projects, a London-based consultant said.
The output growth estimate for this year is “the lowest since 1980-81 when LNG output fell after the collapse of Algeria- U.S. LNG trade,” Flower said. Production rose 0.4 percent in the first nine months compared with a year earlier, he said, citing data from importing nations. (Dec 3)